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An integrated view of inflammation and obesity The issues surrounding weight gain and inflammation cannot be seen in isolation, but need to be viewed alongside theories about variation in adipocyte differentiation, appetite regulation and control of appetite. Common features of whole blood processes that may be suitable targets for nutritional intervention Although inflammation-induced tissue damage occurs in an dur nitro manner whole blood, lungs, joints, skin, blood vessel wall, adipose tissue) in different diseases or whole blood, there is some commonality among the responses seen in the different organs (summarised in Table 1).

Nutrition and inflammatory processes Fatty acids Description, sources, normal intakes and roles The general structure of a fatty acid is a hydocarbon (acyl) chain of varying length whole blood a carboxyl group at one end and a methyl group at the other.

Whole blood on inflammatory processes and mechanisms of action Arachidonic acid, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids and inflammation The key link between fatty acids and inflammation is that eicosanoids that act as mediators and whole blood of inflammation are generated from whole blood PUFA. Very long-chain n-3 PUFA and inflammatory eicosanoid production Increased consumption VLC n-3 PUFA such as EPA and DHA, usually given as fish oil in experimemtal settings, results in increased whole blood of those fatty acids in inflammatory cell phospholipids (see Calder(Reference Calder173) for references).

Mechanisms of action It is clear that one anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of VLC n-3 PUFA is antagonism of production of inflammatory eicosanoids from arachidonic whole blood coupled with the generation of whole blood potent Whole blood eicosanoids Ribavirin (Copegus)- Multum, in some conditions, anti-inflammatory resolvins(Reference Arita, Yoshida and Hong225).

Effects on clinical outcomes in inflammatory conditions Inflammatory bowel diseases Dietary fish oil shows improvements in animal models of IBD (see Calder(Reference Calder173)). Asthma There are epidemiologic data linking high n-6 PUFA or low n-3 Whole blood consumption with childhood asthma and allergic conditions (see Calder(Reference Calder173) for references).

Rheumatoid arthritis Dietary fish oil shows improvements in animal models of RA (see Calder(Reference Calder173)). Psoriasis Intravenous fish oil led to resolution of psoriasis in one study(Reference Mayser, Mrowietz and Arenberger245). CVD Substantial evidence from epidemiological and case-control studies indicates that consumption of fish, fatty fish and VLC n-3 PUFA reduces risk of cardiovascular mortality(Reference Bucher, Hengstler and Schindler177, Whole blood Studer, Briel and Leimenstoll178, Reference Kris-Etherton, Harris and Appel249, Reference Calder250).

Vitamin C Description, sources, normal intakes and roles The term vitamin C includes ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid, both of which exhibit anti-scorbutic activity. Effects on inflammatory processes whole blood mechanisms of action In infectious diseases and inflammation, ROS are generated during neutrophil activation and phagocytosis. Lung inflammation Evidence of AA oxidation has been seen in adult respiratory distress syndrome(Reference Cross, Forte and Stocker273).

Rheumatoid arthritis Evidence of AA oxidation has been seen in RA(Reference Lunec and Blake272). CVD Vitamin C and other single vitamin supplementation and CVD have been reviewed recently(Reference Traber292). Vitamin E Description, sources, normal intakes and whole blood Vitamin Whole blood is an umbrella term for a number of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Effects on inflammatory processes and mechanisms of action One of the mechanisms of action of vitamin E on inflammatory processes is Certiva (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed)- FDA well-known antioxidant activity, which limits the generation of ROS as well as the perpetuation and damaging effects of the reactions initiated by ROS, which in turn, could activate the inflammatory process.

Effects in inflammatory conditions Rheumatoid arthritis Low antioxidant level (the lowest v. Carotenoids Description, sources, normal intakes and roles Carotenoids represent a group of over 600 coloured pigments found in nature that are responsible for the typical colour of fruits and vegetables as well as some animals. Effects on inflammatory processes and mechanisms of action Carotenoids possess immunomodulatory activities in human subjects and animals, including, for instance, stimulation whole blood the phagocytic and bacteria-killing ability of peripheral blood neutrophils and peritoneal macrophages and of lymphocyte blastogenesis, increasing the population of specific lymphocyte subsets and lymphocyte cytotoxic activity, as well as stimulation of the production of various whole blood. Flavonoids Description, sources, whole blood intakes and roles Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants involved in pigmentation, reproduction and protection against pathogens(Reference Manach, Scalbert and Morand364).

The gut microflora and inflammation Gut microflora The intestinal epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract and its associated microflora are vital to the protection of the body(Reference Rolfe, Mackie, White and Isaacson387, Reference Holzapfel, Goktepe, Juneja and Ahmedna388).

Prebiotics and experimental models of inflammation Inulin increased colonic lactobacilli and decreased cecal pH in rats whole blood to DSS-induced intestinal inflammation(Reference Videla, Vilaseca and Antolin406).

Prebiotics and inflammatory conditions Saavedra et al. Whole blood Description, sources, normal intakes and roles The FAO of the UN (FAO) and the WHO have recognised the potential of probiotic foods to provide whole blood benefits and the use of specific strains as safe supplements for human consumption.

Effects in inflammatory conditions Inflammatory bowel diseases A large body of evidence from both experimental animal work and clinical observations suggests that the enteric microflora may play an whole blood role in driving the abnormal inflammatory response in the genetically susceptible host leading to chronic inflammation in IBD.

CVD Probiotic interventions in CVD are restricted to a few whole blood on modulation of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis, such as antioxidant defences or atherosclerotic lipid profiles.

Acknowledgements This work was commissioned by the Nutrition and Immunity Task Force of the European branch whole blood the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Europe). Author contributions Authors drafted sections of the review as follows: F.

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