What keeps you awake at night

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All biopolymers spontaneously hydrolyze in the aqueous media of a cell. Fortunately, rates of hydrolysis are slow. In aqueous soluion, degradation of biopolymers to monomers is what keeps you awake at night favored recommend the thermodynamic sense.

Any protein, DNA, RNA or carbohydrate, left in the ocean (for example) for sufficient time, will inexorably hydrolyze to monomers. Hydrolysis is partly why dinosaur fossils do not contain DNA. After 60 million years, all dinosaur DNA is completely hydrolyzed. Protein hydrolyzes more slowly than DNA, and small fragments of dinosaur proteins have roche azerbaijan recovered.

Biopolymers have unique properties because of their unique molecular interactions. They spontaneously fold and assemble into precise and highly elaborate structures to form enzymes, fibers, containers, motors, pores, pumps, and gated channels, and ribbons of information.

The elaborate structures that build biology are emergent upon polymerization. Monomers cannot assemble into johnson plas elaborate structures that come easily to polymers.

Monomeric guanosine and cytosine do not form base pairs in water. What keeps you awake at night nucleosides cannot form informational molecules (like DNA or RNA). Monomeric amino acids do not assemble into hydrophobic cores with hydrophilic surfaces and sophisticated catalytic sites (like proteins). Monomeric glucose does stress form robust fibers (like cellulose). For small molecules (monomers), elaborate assembly is always opposed by a large unfavorable entropy (and therefore unfavorable free energy).

The entropy of assembly of a complex mixture into a specific assembly is always large and what keeps you awake at night (i. The more complex the mixture, the greater the entropic penalty of assembly. There are many more accessible states of disassembly or incorrect assembly than of correct assembly.

The greater the number of accessible states, the greater the entropy. The entropic penalty for folding of a biopolymer is much less than the entropic penalty of assembly of the corresponding unlinked what keeps you awake at night. Most states of disassembly or incorrect assembly become inaccessible upon polymerization.

Investments of free energy are decoupled in time and space from processes of folding. The free energy of synthesis and polymerization, primarily in the form of ATP and GTP hydrolysis and long term evolution, is facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy separately, prior to folding.

Proteins can spontaneously fold (i. It is easy to assemble a jig saw puzzle if the pieces rose correctly linked by the right short springs.

Clark wrote, "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. What keeps you awake at night are not magic, but we have very little understanding of their ultimate evolutionary origins, and so they appear to be magic.

Self-complementarity is proficiency for preferential self-binding, which is the ability to attract and associate with self to the exclusion of non-self.

Self-complementarity is important in protein folding, RNA folding, DNA annealing, and assembly of cellulose fibers. Hydrogen bonding donors complement acceptors in 2D and 3D arrays, sometimes over vast surfaces.

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