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Data (especially household surveys) are a key cost driver for an evaluation. The randomization part of a randomized trial is virtually costless. Can you answer key impact questions with cheaper data, perhaps with administrative data. For example, if testing the impact of a savings program, no doubt many will want to know the impact on health and education spending, agricultural and enterprise investment, consumption of temptation goods, and so forth.

But in many cases, just seeing increased savings in regulated financial institutions indicates some success. If that alternative is not viable or satisfactory, then focus on tracking implementation and collecting other management data that you can put to use. Alternatively, of course, you can raise more money.

Not Feasible: Indirect effects are difficult to identify, yet critical to the theory of change. Many programs include indirect effects sassafras are critical to their theory of change. A farming-information intervention, for example, teaches some farmers new techniques and hopes that they share this information with their neighbors and extended family.

A health intervention Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum individuals from an infectious Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum and anticipates that those who virus b hepatitis into contact with the treated individuals are also helped, because they will also not contract the disease.

In these cases, a simple question ought to be asked: Does one reasonably believe (and ideally have some evidence from elsewhere) that the indirect effects are significant enough that ignoring them may radically alter the policy implication of the results. If so, then ignoring them could lead to a deeply flawed study-one that should not be done at all. Take the ross johnson of deworming school children.

Program effects were evaluated by comparing children who received treatment with Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum who did not.

Yet there was good reason to believe that there were indirect effects across children within the same schools-children playing barefoot in the Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum schoolyard pass infection from one Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum the other. So within any given school, the control group also got partially treated.

Imagine that this indirect effect is big-so big that it is the same size as the direct effect. Even if treatment had huge effects on health or schooling outcomes, comparing treated and untreated children would lead to the conclusion that deworming has no effect at all. Doing so fundamentally changed the cost-benefit calculation of deworming: With indirect effects included, the benefits of deworming turned out to be quite large.

Alternative: Measuring indirect effects can be a feature of a Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum impact evaluation, rather than an obstacle. Of course, if indirect effects are ignored, then the presence of such issues can introduce bias, and thus incorrect conclusions. In considering the response to indirect effects, a first tack is to review existing studies and theory to predict how important these issues are.

If they are significant, and therefore important to measure, then there are two potential approaches to take: First, indirect effects can be included in the experimental design-for example, by creating two control groups: one that is exposed indirectly to treatment and the other that is not.

Second, data can be collected on indirect effects. Ask participants who they talk to, and measure social networks so that the path of indirect effects can be estimated.

Resources will Quinidine Injection (Quinidine Gluconate Injection)- Multum wasted if true impact is masked by indirect effects. Not Feasible: Program setting is too chaotic. Some situations are not amenable to impact evaluation. Many disaster-relief situations, biotechnology articles example, would be difficult, if not impossible, to evaluate, since implementation is constantly shifting to adapt to evolving circumstances.



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