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They are protease inhibitors. Another set of drugs, such as Remdesivir and Favipiravir, interferes with the RdRp thus, inhibiting virus replication. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production is a natural process during an immune response.

An important step in the control of the disease is the elimination of virus-infected cells. IL-17 also seems to have a role m c v the interaction partner of SARS-Cov-2. Anti-inflammatory drugs targeting the production of these Interleukins are an important choice for treatment. The following is an account of the role of Indomethacin in the pathogenic cycle.

Using an open source code, Gene2Drug, Napolitano et al. The other factor, as stated earlier, is the inhibition of Cathepsin L m c v for fusion. Hence, theoretically, Indomethacin could be a major candidate as a fusion inhibitor. The role of Nsp7, a cofactor of Nsp12 for RNA synthesis, has been highlighted by Frediansyah et al.

That it blocks RNA synthesis was also shown by Amici et al. The anti-inflammatory effect of Indomethacin is well understood. IL-6, a key Interleukin, and its surrogate C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are raised in Covid-19 patients. The role of Indomethacin in lowering IL-6 in SARS-CoV-2 patients has been highlighted by Russel et al. There is experimental evidence of the effectiveness of Indomethacin in vitro against SARS-CoV-1 by Amici et al.

M c v evidence for SARS-Cov-2 is provided by Xu et al. They have shown the antiviral effect of Indomethacin in vitro, in cellulo m c v in Corona-infected canine model, though they state that Indomethacin Gadoversetamide Injection (OptiMARK)- FDA not reduce infectivity, binding or entry into target cells.

Though there have been suggestions in m c v of the above-mentioned publications, no proper clinical trial to evaluate Indomethacin has been carried out. However the sample size in these studies is small and a larger well-planned study was required to validate these findings. This study stems from such a requirement. Two centres were identified for the clinical trial. In both the centres (Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India, and Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, Maharashtra, India) patients who tested RT-PCR positive for Covid-19 were recruited for an open labelled single arm study for the efficacy and safety of Indomethacin after obtaining Ethics Committee clearance and consent from the patients.

Patients who opted for Indomethacin were recruited and in order to have a control m c v, patients who opted out of Indomethacin and who received paracetamol instead were also monitored with the same blood tests and for other clinical parameters. Hence, Propensity Score Matching was applied to match patients in these two arms. The two sets of patients were treated in the same ward of the hospital, by the same set of physicians and during the same period.

Indomethacin replaced paracetamol and was given along with standard care which included hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, Azithromycin and vitamins. If patients developed hypoxia, and if the clinician felt the need, they were shifted to a corticosteroid-based regimen.

One of the key factors in the study is the development of hypoxia. The standard care drug regimen was a protocol assigned by the Indian Council of Medical Research and it was mandatory for both the arms to follow this regimen.

A total of 82 patients m c v recruited from geoderma the centres (75 patients from the first and 7 from the second). In the second centre, 75mg SR (Sustained Release) Indomethacin was administered due to non-availability of 25mg. A total of 109 hospitalized patients on paracetamol instead of Indomethacin formed the control m c v. Twenty-one of them were administered supplementary oxygen on admission and one patient required supplementary oxygen subsequently.

Though, according to WHO score, an ordinal score 6 (high flow oxygen) is severe, many of the patients were in high flow oxygen on the second day. Hence, all the patients in this group are called severe in this study. These patients were treated with Indomethacin 75mg SR for five days along with Remdesivir (as part of the standard treatment). They were analysed separately as a single arm with the end point being deterioration to a score of 7. The following were the investigations polycystic kidney disease on admission: CT scan of the lungs, Liver Function Test, Kidney Function Massage milking prostate, C-Reactive Protein and D-Dimer.

The blood chemistry was repeated on discharge and the well-being of the bayer pharma monitored for fourteen days. The patients were monitored for oxygen saturation, fever, cough and myalgia during the five-day treatment or till recovery.

Myalgia was left to the patient discretion to report and the patient was discharged with a consistent SpO2 m c v of above 94. Propensity Score Matching was carried out for the first set of mild and moderate patients using the open-source software R. Age, gender, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes or both), CT-score (out of 40) on admission, C-Reactive protein on admission, presence or absence of dyspnea were considered as covariates.

M c v Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test returned a p-value of 0. M c v scoring algorithm converged m c v 4 iterations and the deviance check also confirmed a good fit. Out of a total of 82 patients in the Indomethacin arm, 72 patients were matched with the patients m c v the paracetamol group, which had 109 patients. In order to understand the impact of the sample size, the response rate for paracetamol was assumed to be 0.

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