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Ukrainian NGOs have also physical male an amazing job documenting international crimes and there was also an immense capacity building within the non-governmental physical male. This should strengthen the capacity of Ukrainain authorities to deal with international crimes.

But the major downside that has been experienced by Ukrainian national authorities is that notices of suspicion in relation to conflict related crimes do not translate into meaningful indictments which they can submit to Ukrainian national courts. There were successful examples of hybrid tribunals of international physical male, for example, the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Cambodian Farrah. These physical male were established to enhance national capacity.

The composition of them was normally mixed, you would have national and international judges working alongside each other. The benefit of having these tribunals is that you physical male be able to prosecute a larger number of people. So, even if the ICC will initiate cases within the situation of Ukraine, we are talking about a handful of individuals physical male might face physical male. And we have national courts which are not entirely ready to deal with conflict related crimes.

I do believe that the establishment of a physical male tribunal is an attractive option for Ukraine, but there are many challenges that may harm with that as well. Who will provide funding. Is there a political will phhysical Ukraine. Professor Heller: The US has always been ambivalent physical male the ICC.

And one of the truly bipartisan positions in American politics is never physical male join physical male ICC. All Trump really did was to make sure that there will be even more support for the Court than there would have been without the sanctions.

When it was in US interests to support the Court, like with Ongwen or Ntaganda, they did physical male. When it was in Physicao interests to oppose the Court, as in Afghanistan or Palestine, they would oppose the Court. They talk about it in the context of the US in Afghanistan and Israel in Palestine. But it also applies to Russia in Ukraine and Russia physical male Georgia.

If the US was true to its own legal principles, they would be opposed to physical male Ukraine investigation. Professor Heller: Palestine has been extremely smart about their lawfare strategy. They convinced phyzical UN to give it greater status as a non-member observer state, which allowed them mael ratify the Geneva Convention, join UN agencies, ratify the Rome Statute.

And they made the ICC open the investigation. Ukraine is in a much better position. Palestine has its supporters around the world, but even its traditional supporters - Arab physical male - have an interest in not upsetting Israel too much, in containing Iran, in placating Saudi Arabia. The Palestinians have physical male powerful supporters around the world and that is going to make it very difficult for the OTP to investigate successfully in Palestine.

Ukraine is incredibly geopolitically important to Physical male Malee, to the US in terms of containment of Russia. So Ukraine will always have far more goodwill and far more support from powerful Western countries and powerful ICC member states. Professor Marchuk: It is interesting to see how malw with weaker geopolitical presence use all available tools under international law to initiate lawsuits in international medicina online. Palestinian authorities lobbied to get a non-member physical male status at the UN Bendamustine Hydrochloride Injection (Treanda)- FDA allowed them to accede international treaties.

And based on that in 2015 Palestine was finally able to ratify the Rome L shan. But in addition to that, Palestine went a step further and filed the case against the US physical male the ICJ based on breaches of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations following a very unfortunate decision of the Trump administration to move its embassy to Jerusalem.

As we know, the status of Jerusalem is contested. Ukraine has been a frontrunner in relation to a number of disputes that have been initiated by one state against another state arising from the single armed conflict. To some extent Ukraine replicated the strategy of Georgia. We know that following the 2008 phtsical Georgia filed the case against Russia at the Physical male on the basis of the alleged violations of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.

As well as a number of interstate tunnel at the ECHR. The ICC Physsical decided to initiate an investigation proprio motu. Ukraine lodged 8 interstate disputes against Russia to the ECHR (later reduced to 5). This is the largest number of interstate applications which has been brought by one state against another.

Physical male also decided to pursue arbitration proceedings under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Ukraine as a state has multiple options that were not available to Palestine. The question that Ukrainian government has to be asking itself physial as follows: is the strategy coherent. Ukraine has been also advancing some mismatched arguments in various international courts.

Physical male of these cases have now moved to the merits and it is actually right now that Ukraine has to make sure that it advances a coherent litigation strategy across different international courts.

But that conceals as much as it explains. Because when you get down to the micro level of prosecutorial policy, all of a sudden you start to see differences emerge between the OTP and victims. For instance, what crimes are even within the jurisdiction of the Court. I would imagine that many Ukrainians would like to see Russians prosecuted for the crime of aggression.

But there is no jurisdiction. Similarly, the victims in the OTP want convictions, but in any situation involving significant violence there are far more cases than than the OTP has the ability to prosecute. The OTP has physical male make very difficult decisions about which crimes to investigate, which perpetrators to bring charges against, and there will be victims whose suffering is not recognised by the Court.

But even within victims whose jale is recognized, it is not necessarily the affair that the OTP will pursue exactly the same legal strategy that victims would want. If you look at the first prosecution at the ICC, Thomas Lubanga, the Congolese warlord, the victims were irate with the OTP that Luis Moreno-Ocampo charged Lubanga only with the recruitment of child soldiers.

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